The Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015 (ACJA)20922 views
The Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015 (ACJA) is unmistakably the hottest Law in Nigeria presently and it is without doubt due to its wide applicability and revolutionary nature. The Law comes in handy for both lawyers and non-lawyers.
The Act which was signed into law in May 2015, has a 495-section law divided into 49 parts, providing for the administration of criminal justice and for related matters in the courts of the Federal Capital Territory and other Federal Courts in Nigeria. With the ACJA, Nigeria now has a unique and unified law applicable in all federal courts and with respect to offences contained in Federal Legislations. The law repeals the erstwhile Criminal Procedure Act as applied in the South and the Criminal Procedure (Northern states) Act, which applied in the North and the Administration of Justice Commission Act.
The ACJA, by merging the major provisions of the two principal criminal justice legislations in Nigeria, that is CPA and CPC, preserves the existing criminal procedures while introducing new provisions that will enhance the efficiency of the justice system and help fill the gaps observed in these laws over the course of several decades.
The law has been described as the much awaited revolution in the criminal justice arena as the criminal justice system existing before the coming into force of this law has lost its capacity to respond quickly to the needs of the society, check the rising waves of crime, speedily bring criminals to book and protect the victims of crime.
Section 1 of the ACJA is overtly apt in explaining the purpose of the Act thus: The purpose of this Act is to ensure that the system of administration of criminal justice in Nigeria promotes efficient management of criminal justice institutions, speedy dispensation of justice, protection of the society from crime and protection of the rights and interests of the suspect, the defendant, and the victim.
One essential feature of the ACJA is its paradigm shift from punishment as the main goal of the criminal justice to restorative justice which pays serious attention to the needs of the society, the victims, vulnerable persons and human dignity generally. The general tone of the Act puts human dignity in the fore, from the adoption of the word defendant instead of accused, to its provision for humane treatment during arrest, to its numerous provisions for speedy trial, to suspended sentencing, community service, parole, compensation to victims of crime and so-on.
A PEEP INTO ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE ACT, 2015
The ACJ Act has 495 Sections through which its tentacles spread across every major aspect of criminal justice system. In fact, the Act regulates more than just criminal procedure; it covers, in most part, the entire criminal justice process from arrest, investigation, trial, custodial matters and sentencing guidelines. It is about all things criminal, from the cradle to the grave. We shall take a look at some of the innovative provisions of the Act which we consider to be landmark issues as follows:
1. UNLAWFUL ARRESTS
This is one of the provisions of the Act that every Nigerian should be grateful for. By section 10(1) of the CPA, the police could arrest without a warrant, any person who has no ostensible means of sustenance and who cannot give a satisfactory account of himself. This particular provision has been greatly abused by the police who use it as a ground to arrest people indiscriminately and has been deleted by the ACJ Act. Now, police cannot arrest persons in lieu of suspects, where actual arrest is carried out; a suspect is entitled to notification of cause of Arrest and shall be accorded humane treatment, having regard to dignity of his person.
Similarly, long gone is the era in which police dabble into civil matters or even simple contracts and use their power of arrest as a weapon to intimidate and oppress a lot of innocent Nigerians. By virtue of the ACJ Act, it is now illegal for the police to arrest persons over civil wrongs and contracts.
2. PLEA BARGAIN 
Under the Act, plea bargain means the process in criminal proceedings whereby the defendant and the prosecution work out a mutually acceptable disposition of the case; including the plea of the defendant to a lesser offence than that charged in the complaint or information and in conformity with other conditions imposed by the prosecution, in return for a lighter sentence than that for the higher charge subject to the Court’s approval. The Act empowers the prosecution to enter into plea bargain with the defendant, with the consent of the victim during or after the presentation of the evidence of the prosecution, but before the presentation of the evidence of the defence. This provision of the law helps in quick dispensation of justice and saves the time and resources that would have been wasted in trial.
3. TRIAL OF CORPORATION 
In times past, a company could not be said to commit a crime as the law requires the presence of mens rea and actus reus to ground a charge of crime. Thus, this twin requirement has continuously shielded corporate entities from criminal liability over the years. However, by virtue of the provision of the Act, a corporation can now be tried for criminal matters through its representative. A company is now treated as an adult ‘defendant’ ‘for any offence’ without exception.
4. SUSPENDED SENTENCE AND COMMUNITY SERVICE 
The Act, in pursuance of its reformative and restorative approach, provided that a court, having regard to the need to reduce congestion in prisons; rehabilitate prisoners by making them to undertake productive work; and prevent convict who commit simple offences from mixing with hardened criminals may, with or without conditions, suspend a convict’s sentence in which case, the convict shall not be required to serve the sentence in accordance with the conditions of the suspension or the convict may be sentenced to specified service in his community or such community or place as the court may direct. Provided however, that the offence for which the convict was tried does not involve the use of arms or offensive weapon, or for an offence which the punishment exceeds imprisonment for a term of three years.
5. SPEEDY TRIAL
The ACJA in amplifying the provisions of the constitution to ensure speedy dispensation of justice makes the following provisions among others:
a. Stay of proceedings 
The new position of the law now is that application for stay of proceedings shall no longer be heard in respect of a criminal matter before the court. This unprecedented provision puts a gag on the delays occasioned to the trial process by interlocutory applications to stay proceedings pending appeal on preliminary matters even when the substantive issues are yet to be tried on the merits.
b. Day-to-day trial 
Upon arraignment, the trial of the defendant shall proceed from day-to-day until the conclusion of the trial. Where day-to-day trial is impracticable, the Act provides that parties shall be entitled to only five adjournments each. The interval between each adjournment, according to the Act, shall not exceed two weeks each. Where the trial is still not concluded, the interval for adjournments will be reduced to seven days each.
c. Assignment of information and issuance of notice of trial 
By virtue of this section, information filed are to be assigned to courts by the Chief Judge within fifteen days and the Judge in turn, is to issue notice of trial within ten working days of the assignment of the information to his court.
d. Objection to the validity of charge 
Any objection to the validity of the charge or information raised by the defendant shall only be considered along with the substantive issues and a ruling thereon made at the time of delivery of judgement.
6. WOMEN SURETIES 
This is one of the provisions of the Act that has been lauded the most. This is because it has finally laid to rest the long-standing controversy as to whether a woman can stand surety for a bail applicant. The law provides that “no person shall be denied, prevented or restricted from entering into any recognition or Standing as surety for any defendant or application on the ground only that the person is a woman”.
7. ELECTRONIC RECORDING OF CONFESSIONAL STATEMENTS 
A number of criminal cases are bedevilled with denial of confessional statements. It is either the defendant is denying ever making the statement or alleging that the statement was made under duress or other such vitiating factors. This often leads the court to suspend trial of the substantive matter to conduct what is called trial within trial. This takes an awful length of time and even at times leads to the confessional statement being set aside. This is largely due to the fact that the confessional statements are merely in writing. The ACJA, in conformity with the provision of the Evidence Act 2011, now provides that a Confessional Statement may be made by means of an electronic recording in a retrievable video compact disc or such other audio-visual means.
8. PROSECUTION OF OFFENCES
Another interesting feature of the Act is Section 106 of the Act which makes the prosecution of cases the exclusive preserve of lawyers. In effect, police personnel who are not lawyers have lost the right to prosecute. This provision has been said to impliedly suspend section 23 of the Police Act which empowers police officers to prosecute matters in court. This section also by extension, overrules the Supreme Court decision in FRN v Osahon (2006) 5 NWLR (Pt. 973). To a very large extent, this is a welcomed development because a lot of cases are being mismanaged in court by the police officers due to lack of diligent prosecution.
9. REMAND TIME LIMIT 
Our prison cells are jam-packed today not just because of the number of convicts serving actual jail terms, but largely because of a huge number of suspects been remanded in those prisons. Suspects are being remanded at will and sometimes indefinitely. However, by the provision of ACJA, a suspect shall not be remanded for more than 14 days at first instance and renewable for a time not exceeding fourteen days where “good cause” is shown. At the expiration of the remand order, if Legal Advice is still not issued, the court shall issue hearing note to the Inspector General of Police and Attorney General of the Federation or the Commissioner of Police or any other authority in whose custody the suspect is remanded to inquire into the position of things and adjourn for another period not exceeding fourteen days for the above mentioned officials to come and explain why the suspect should not be released unconditionally.
10. COMPENSATION TO VICTIMS OF CRIME
Generally in criminal matters where the defendant is found guilty of the alleged crime, the only ‘remedy’ was sentencing. Victims of crimes are often neglected and left without any form of compensation. The ACJA has however brought succor to victims of crime by broadening the powers of the court to award commensurate compensation in deserving cases to victims of crime.
Further, the Act provides that a court may, within the proceedings or when passing judgment, order the convict to pay compensation to any person injured by the offence, a bonafide purchaser for value, or for defraying expenses incurred on medical treatment of a victim injured by the convict in connection with the offence.
This is a very commendable provision of the law in that it does not only seek to punish the offender, but also to ameliorate the hardship occasioned by the commission of the offence thus, serving justice in both ways.
By and large, the provisions of the Act are geared towards curing most of the anomalies and lacuna in the existing criminal laws. But as we all know, in Nigeria, the problem is always not with the law but with the implementation of the law. This new law is very progressive, timely and in conformity with international best practices and we sincerely hope that it will be well implemented to give life to the dream justice system that the legislators have in mind for Nigeria.
 Section 8(1) Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 460(1) Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 460(2) Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 468 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 314; 319 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 7 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 6 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 8(1) Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 8(2) Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 270 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 494 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 477 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 477 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 484 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 460 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 306 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 396 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 382 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 396(2) Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 167 (3) Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 167 (3) Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 15 (4) Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 29 thereof  Section 15 (4) Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 296 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 296 thereof  Section 314 Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015  Section 319 (1) Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015
Yahaya February 9, 2016 - 9:51 am
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Kingsley Mallan February 10, 2016 - 6:11 am
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inyang udoema February 10, 2016 - 11:10 am
much oblige for the update and i do hope you will keep it up.
sunny okolo February 10, 2016 - 1:59 pm
The Act applies to only federal courts. So the police can still prosecute in state courts, is that correct?
LawPavilion February 10, 2016 - 2:35 pm
Thank you for your brilliant question. The applicability of the Act has somehow been a subject of debate amongst lawyers. Section 2 of the Act talks about application and only court martial is excluded by virtue of its sub-section (2). So, invariably, the Act applies to Criminal Procedure in all other Courts.
Yoursef raim & Co. February 10, 2016 - 7:39 pm
sadiq saleh February 10, 2016 - 8:29 pm
I believe this piece will go a long way in re orienting and re exposing the public on d improvement of our criminal justice system.
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Plz sir how can I be getting updates of recent judgment
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ifeyinwa love the edeh February 11, 2016 - 6:52 am
What a good breakdown. Please send me your reports.
Okey February 11, 2016 - 9:04 am
A very big Thank you to law pavilion. Kindly furnish me with your regular update. Thanks
Jude Ezegwui February 11, 2016 - 10:34 am
Thank you Lawpavilion
Prosper February 11, 2016 - 4:57 pm
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kabo S.E February 12, 2016 - 10:50 am
it seems that the draftsmen were not tardy enough, in that section 2 of the Act is conflicting with section 495 (1) which seeks to repeal the CPA & CPC without reservation as to the extent of the repeal. However, sub section (3) of section 495 is still making reference to the CPA & CPC as if same was not repealed by sub section (1).
from the above, the controversy as to whether the ACJA, 2015 is inapplicable to the various state courts is justified.
theshoeshop March 29, 2017 - 3:29 am
Hello, what do you mean by S.495(1) and 495(3)? There are no such provisions within the Act. The only thing contained in Section 495 is “This Act may be cited as the Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015.” No more and no less. Please can you shed more light on your point?
ISIBOR Aigbe February 19, 2016 - 8:19 pm
@kabo S.E. Is it applicable or not applicable?
danjames February 24, 2016 - 3:25 am
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Emmy February 27, 2016 - 1:28 pm
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Effiong March 7, 2016 - 1:35 am
Can bail already granted by the court be extended???
Akindele Adeniyi April 7, 2016 - 12:44 pm
this is inspiring
Thomas Oluwasegun April 23, 2016 - 12:50 pm
Thanks for this analyses.I am an LL.B student,and I am writing a thesis on Capital Punishment in Nigeria.Please what are the relevant provisions of the ACJ ACT on Capital Punishment.
Thanks for your anticipated cooperation
Falayi Babafemi May 10, 2016 - 4:29 pm
Law Pavilion, I’m mostly grateful for giving my thesis a foothold.
Fred Nzeako.Esq May 25, 2016 - 5:21 pm
Many thanks for all your educative and incisive analysis of legal issues. You enrich our legal education and knowledge. Kudos.
Arikpo E Agbor July 31, 2016 - 7:23 pm
I gladly appreciate the educative, informative and incisive synopsis you have given on this subject matter. however, there are so many grey areas about ACJA some of which some commentariats have mentioned. suffice that i mention ACJA’s approval of ‘holding charge’, which is in a way may be regarded as a contravention of the letter and spirits of the 1999 constitution, S. 35 of CFRN 1999 (as amended) the question being whether 48 hours or 14days and more of the ACJA i.e. what i termed moderated rule of law. Ss. 293-295(1)-(7),
second, the ACJA’s concept of compensation is it not nebulous, sweeping and untenable? who will compensate whom? what kind of compensation on which kind of offence? what is the compensation for lost of life, limp or more. is it the government who will be vicariously liable for the acts of her citizen? if it is the convict, you now will ask what is the convict’s financial standing to want compensate the offended. is it not as well double punishment_conviction and compensation?
‘the issue of eliciting confessional statements in this clime is not as easy as the first three English alphabets”. that is what a police officer said, when yours faithfully, asked whether the police was aware of this provision in the ACJA 2015.
May be we should all be Realists with ACJA or like gold whose worth is prove by furnace. the beauty of ACJA is its test in court.
Olakitan Seun Aiyelabola August 10, 2016 - 11:49 pm
Thank you so much Law Pavilion!!! This is a Great deal of information. Keep up with this.
Chidi Egbom September 8, 2016 - 5:56 am
Please add me to your mail list. Your efforts at educating and improving the lots of lawyers and the legal profession is commendable. I wish and hope to be receiving legal updates from your team of eggheads. Thanks and remain blessed.
Martin September 16, 2016 - 7:58 pm
Bless you law parvilion..U have confidence in your analysis
Chidozie Uzowulu October 14, 2016 - 10:36 am
Hello, please why is this Act not in your Lawpavilion 6.2 Personal edition?
Suleiman Ahmed October 16, 2016 - 12:16 pm
Please kindly send me the anti torture bill.
Emmanuel ihioko January 14, 2017 - 11:35 am
hello,please in regards to this act(Administration of the criminal justice act 2015) will it be applicable to the internally displaced persons camp in Nigeria (IDP)
Chinyere January 15, 2017 - 12:47 pm
Tyo, Emmanuel March 26, 2017 - 10:37 am
Great job! Well done
Tyo, Emmanuel March 26, 2017 - 10:37 am
Great job! Well done
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Amyna August 1, 2017 - 11:23 am
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Adeboboye Adekunle August 25, 2017 - 10:51 am
Can you please email me your updates
ibiene September 20, 2017 - 6:11 am
I am very interested in your updates
Celestine Ogbonnaya October 1, 2017 - 5:51 am
This is really a pure academic and legal work. Kudos to the law pavilion team.
OSITA CORNELIUS November 3, 2017 - 5:35 pm
will appreciate if you can send me your fair hearing and illegal arrests reports
Chief Nkereuwem Akpan November 15, 2017 - 4:35 am
This is truly incisive and enlightening as well. Bravo
Miracle November 25, 2017 - 12:31 pm
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Alhaji Maidawa December 9, 2017 - 6:02 am
Thank you Law Pavilion.
Yusuf Olaoluwa January 15, 2018 - 8:50 am
Why are some states still using the CPA and the CPC? Is the ACJA not meant to take effect throughout the whole country?
Samuel Akpakwu April 11, 2018 - 11:34 am
Section 495 read together with Sec 2 means that we have a formidable and unified central criminal justice system in Nigeria ?
London jacob May 21, 2018 - 11:36 pm
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Chidi Barry Chukwu May 22, 2018 - 11:01 am
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Iwuji Uchechi June 12, 2018 - 8:44 pm
Pls What is the comparison between the institutions of criminal proceedings under the old law and under the ACJ administration of criminal justice act 2004,with emphasis on the role of the police
EMMANUEL SALAMI ONOJA June 13, 2018 - 4:52 pm
You are doing a great work. Keep up the good work and please add me to your mail list.
Jaydee June 19, 2018 - 8:13 am
You have just the right info I needed! Thanks and please keep me updated.
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Lydia Umar August 19, 2019 - 11:18 am
Thank you for a concise analysis. I was looking forward to reading a gap analysis of the ACJA, as mentioned by a commentator, there are grey arrears of its applicability, that could be abuse.
+) The obtaining of a remand order from a court without Jurisdiction to hear the substantive matter,
2) The fact that this is done via exparte application which does not give the defendant the opportunity to be heard on the exparte on remand.
3) The fact that the exparte could be applied for without the Physical presentation of the defendant before a court, means that the magistrate may not have a complete picture of the condition of the defendant being sought to be remanded.
Just to name a few, I look forward to reading about this. Kudos law Pavilion.
Ogbu Anthony September 30, 2019 - 7:56 am
Information that will definitely save lives
Emmanuel Ogunewe December 6, 2019 - 12:52 pm
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Abi December 9, 2019 - 10:47 pm
George ADIKIBE-NANA December 16, 2019 - 7:07 pm
Thamks so much for this information l am truly grateful it will go a long way to institute legal education in communities.
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M.I. Bagudu September 7, 2020 - 10:03 pm
Seriously easing our research assisting works, in fact, greatly. Please keep me update
Ekekwe T.E September 28, 2020 - 7:20 pm
Ayodeji Adetola joshua November 19, 2020 - 5:51 pm
please what are the municipal law in criminal justice administration in Nigeria.
Nsakpe Paschal January 18, 2021 - 6:22 am
I am a student and this is what I was given as project topic, the one I chose was The right and mode of institution of criminal proceedings in Nigeria an appraisal, but was later corrected to the right and mode of institution of criminal proceedings in Nigeria under the administration of criminal justice Act
Joseph Nile February 1, 2022 - 12:46 am
kindly, keep me update to ease my research work. Appreciates
Ebere February 20, 2023 - 12:32 pm
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